FSSM ACTION PLAN

GOVERNMENT OF ANDHRA PRADESH
A B S T R A C T
Municipal Administration & Urban Development – Faecal Sludge and Septage
Management as a part of implementation of reforms under the AMRUT for the year
2016-2017 – Approved – Orders – Issued.
x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-xMUNICIPAL ADMINISTRATION & URBAN DEVELOPMENT (UBS) DEPARTMENT
G.O.Ms.No.134 Dated:31-03-2017
Read:-
From the Director of Municipal Administration, Guntur
Letter Roc No. 1638/2017- M3 dated 14.03.2017.
*** ***
O R D E R:
In the circumstances reported by the Director, Municipal Administration,
Guntur in the reference read above, Government hereby approve “ Faecal Sludge
and Septage Management” Policy together with Operative Guidelines for Urban
Local Bodies in Andhra Pradesh as annexed to this order.
The Director, Municipal Administration, Guntur shall take necessary further
action in the matter.
(BY ORDER AND IN THE NAME OF THE GOVERNOR OF ANDHRA PRADESH)
R.KARIKAL VALAVEN
PRINCIPAL SECRETARY TO GOVERNMENT
To
The Director, Municipal Administration, Gorantla, Guntur.
Sf/Sc
//FORWARDED BY ORDER//
ASSISTNT DIRECTOR
FAECAL SLUDGE AND SEPTAGE
MANAGEMENT:
POLICY AND OPERATIVE GUIDELINES
FOR URBAN LOCAL BODIES IN
ANDHRA PRADESH
Table of Contents
1. Introduction 4
1.1 Current Scenario in Andhra Pradesh 5
1.2 The Need for Faecal Sludge and Septage Management (FSSM) system
in Andhra Pradesh 6
2. Operative Guidelines for Urban Local Bodies 7
2.1 Collection and Storage 8
2.2 Transport 9
2.3 Treatment, Disposal, and Reuse 10
2.4 Awareness Generation and Capacity Building Activities 12
2.5 Record-keeping, Reporting, Monitoring, and Feedback Systems (MIS) 13
2.6 Private Sector Participation for FSSM Activities 13
3. Financial Resources and Considerations in FSSM 14
4. Technology Options for Faecal Sludge and Septage Management
15
Annexures 17
1. Introduction
Urban Andhra Pradesh was declared Open Defecation Free by the Honourable Chief Minister,
Shri Chandrababu Naidu, on October 2, 2016. Achieving this has been a major success in terms of
infrastructure building, human development, sanitation, and public health. It was the crucial first
step in creating an Andhra Pradesh whose citizens can enjoy clean and sanitary cities; however, it is
not the only requirement. Over ninety percent of urban households in Andhra Pradesh use on-site
sanitation systems, such as septic tanks, pit latrines, and soak pits.
As these containment facilities are not connected to any larger system, they need to be emptied
periodically. When emptied, the refuse from these tanks, called “faecal sludge” and “septage,” is
usually thrown directly into the environment without any processing or treatment – this sludge
goes directly from septic tanks into rivers or onto fields, often within municipal boundaries. “Faecal
Sludge” includes the liquids, solids, as well as the fats, oils and grease (scum) that accumulate in
containment units over time, while “Septage” usually refers to the refuse of septic tanks in
particular. As a variety of containment typologies exist in Andhra Pradesh, these regulations will
primarily refer to faecal sludge and septage, though the two terms are used here interchangeably.
This refuse, called either faecal sludge or septage, is harmful and contains many pathogens
hazardous to human health. Accordingly, the unregulated dumping of faecal sludge into the
environment is an ongoing public health and environmental crisis both in Andhra Pradesh and
across the country.
The central government has taken notice. Accordingly, when the Ministry of Urban
Development (MoUD), Government of India formulated the National Urban Sanitation Policy
(NUSP) in 2008 in order to provide urban Indians with clean, healthy, liveable, and sanitary
community-driven cities and towns, a set of recommendations regarding septage (also known as
faecal sludge) was included. The NUSP recommends that septage be collected, transported, and
disposed of properly at well-maintained purpose-built treatment facilities.
There are two major sources of standards and guidelines for septage management in India: The
National Building Code, last revised in 2005 by the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS); and The
Manual on Sewerage and Sewage Treatment, prepared by the Central Public Health and
Environmental Engineering Organization (CPHEEO) in 2012.
While the CPHEEO Manual assigned responsibility for checking sludge accumulation on a
daily basis and determining emptying times to households, the CPHEEO Manual also
recommended that state and municipal governments draw up action plans and implementation
budgets for extracting, treating, and disposing of the sludge generated in on-site facilities in
accordance with the “Septage Management Guidelines” (MOUD, 2013). Further, the Ministry of
Urban Development in 2016 published set of guidelines on Faecal Sludge and Septage Management
(FSSM) which can provide further support to ULBs.
Faecal sludge and septage management (FSSM) includes the entire process of design,
collection, safe treatment& disposal of faecal sludge /septage based on generation of waste. A
comprehensive program that regulates periodic cleaning of on-site containment, , as well as
septage transport, treatment, re-use, and disposal is important in the context of our rapidly
urbanizing state.
1.1 Current Scenario in Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh is a rapidly urbanizing state; 146 lakh people, or 29.6% (Census 2011) of the
state’s population live in urban areas, and urban populations are growing at an accelerating pace.
In accordance with the Honourable Chief Minister’s push to create an Andhra Pradesh blessed by
total sanitation, Faecal Sludge and Septage Management, is being accorded highest priority by the
Government of Andhra Pradesh.
There are 14 Municipal Corporations and 96 smaller Municipalities in the state. Of these
combined 110 Urban Local Bodies only five local bodies possess partial sewage treatment plants
(STPs), DPRs are currently being developed to construct underground sewerage systems (UGSSs)
and STPs in some AMRUT towns. None of Andhra Pradesh’s ULBs will enjoy even 50% sewerage
coverage upon the completion of this infrastructure in the short to medium term.
ULB-wise capacities of existing STPs is therefore given following table on the next page.
Table 1 - ULB Wise Capacity of STP’s (2015)1
# City/Town STP Location Status Capacity (MLD)
1 Rajahmundry Rajamundry, ED
District
Operational 30
2 Tirupati Tukivakam Operational 25
3 Vijayawada Azithsinghnagar Operational 27.27
4 Azithsinghnagar Under Construction 40
5 Auto Nagar Operational 10
6 Ramalingeswara
Nagar
Operational 10
7 Poornanadampet Operational 14
8 Vishakhapatnam Appughar Operational 25
9 Muvasalava Under Construction 13
10 Old Town Under Construction 38
11 Port Area Operational 10
12 Vizianagaram Pedda Chuvu Operational 5
1 Central Pollution Control Board, Inventorization of Sewage Treatment Plants, 2015
1.2 The Need for Faecal Sludge and Septage Management system in
Andhra Pradesh
Although Andhra Pradesh is currently in the process of developing and extending
underground sewerage systems, they currently serve less than ten percent of urban households.
While this number mayrise in the coming years, it is not projected to reach fifty percent even in
major towns and cities over the next decade. Furthermore, the majority of municipalities, those not
designated as AMRUT towns, will continue using on- site sanitation (OSS) for the foreseeable
future. Across the world, governments are realizing that conventional sewerage systems, while
advantageous in certain situations, are not a sanitation panacea as they require huge capital
expenditures, consume significant amounts of water, need extensive operations and maintenance
throughout their existence and high skill set at municipal level to maintain.
As a result of these factors, Faecal Sludge and Septage Management is a necessary component
of the efforts to ensure Andhra Pradesh’s towns and cities are clean and sanitary. These efforts will
require developing detailed rules and regulations, refurbishing existing septic tanks and latrines
and developing desludging, transportation and treatment infrastructure.
While municipalities plan for faecal sludge treatment infrastructure, , they should pursue
short-term incremental improvements simultaneously through operationalizing steps outlined in
this document. . These incremental improvements may be prioritized for the first year after these
guidelines become operative, after which point focusing on longer-term solutions will take
priority.
These guidelines will regulate collection, treatment, and disposal of faecal sludge and septage
in urban areas in Andhra Pradesh. This following sections details out these guidelines.
2. Operative Guidelines for Urban Local Bodies
Faecal Sludge and Septage Management (FSSM) for the local bodies includes both residential
and non- residential/commercial waste (though not industrial waste). These Operative Guidelines
for FSSM seek to empower municipalities with knowledge, procedures and facilities for planning
and implementing FSSM . In particular, City Sanitation Task Forces (CSTFs) should take up an
active planning and advisory role in cooperation with municipal councils in order to dedicate
appropriate resources and attention to the challenges of faecal sludge management.
Step by step approach: Operatio
Assessing service performan
assessment is the first step in planni
sense of the state of FSSM facility i
gaps in key services.
The sanitation value chain con
Detailed assessment of servic
appropriate field assessments. As p
these operative guidelines focus on
transportation, treatment, and dispo
2.1 Collection & Storage
Collection and Storage desc
treating the excreta and grey water
system; on-site systems like septic
Ecosan/composting toilets. Similarl
sewerage system or drains of any kin
The first step that all mun
containment facilities in order to c
a) Town level assessment of co
database (like property tax
Bharat Mission (SBM).
b) If the ULB do not have a dat
units. All ULBs shall colle
containment typology (septi
water outlet. This informatio
platform. While this evalua
develop a plan and timeline
onalizing Faecal Sludge and Septage Mana
nce across the sanitation value chain throug
ing process. It is an important exercise, which p
in the town, help in understanding the contex
nsiders the following 5 stages:
ces will need to be done across each link in th
policies and regulations already exist for ensur
the last four stages of the value chain: collection
osal or reuse.
cribes the ways of collecting, storing, and so
r generated by toilets. The toilet may be conne
c tanks with soak pits, leach pits, or may b
ly, for grey water disposal, the households may
nd.
nicipalities must take is to assess all exis
reate a comprehensive database. Steps are list
overage of toilet and on-site sanitation facility u
module) or based on recent survey carried ou
abase, then ULB shall create database of toilets
ected information related to toilet availability
ic tank, pit latrine, soak pit, etc.), and its conne
on should be linked with property tax databases
ation may require an extended timeline, muni
to be shared with and monitored by the state go
agement
gh a town level
provides an initial
xt and identifying
he chain through
ring toilet access,
n and/or storage,
ometimes initially
ected to sewerage
be functioning as
y be connected to
sting toilets and
ted below:
using the existing
ut under Swachh
and containment
y, type of toilet,
ection with waste
s on e-governance
icipalities should
overnment.
c) ULB shall keep updated database related to toilet availability and on-site sanitation through
property tax assessment survey carried out from time to time. .
d) Municipalities shall evaluate existing containment units and other storage/treatment
systems and modify (in case of variation) based on design mentioned in Annexure 1.
e) Notices should be issued to all property owners whose containment facilities do not meet the
standard septic tank design. National/state aid may be sought in order to financially
support the conversation of improper containment units into sanitary toilets. .
f) Identify insanitary toilets and convert them to sanitary latrines for safe collection and
disposal of waste as per norms set out in Annexure 2.
g) All existing containment facilities should have access covers for each chamber, so that they
can be easily opened during emptying process. Where such covers are not available, it
should be made compulsory for all property owners to provide proper covers.
h) Pursuant to the previous four steps, municipalities must take efforts to build the capacity of
masons and builders to teach them how to construct proper toilets and refurbish improper
already-built containment units. Details regarding the codes that must be followed are
included in the next item.
i) When new containment facilities need to be built, they should be built as septic tanks
designed and constructed as per instructed in the National Building Code, 2005 and
CPHEEO Manual, 2013 which takes reference of design norms from IS: 2470 on Code of
practice for installation of septic tanks - Part 1: Design and Construction and Part 2:
Secondary treatment and disposal of septic tank effluent 1985 (Reaffirmed 1996). The design
norms CPHEEO Manual, 2013 is compiled in Annexure 1.
2.2 Transport
Transport describes the movement of sludge across the service chain from individual septic
tanks and latrines to municipal or regional treatment facilities. Currently, these services are largely
unregulated across Andhra Pradesh, particularly in smaller cities and towns. Municipalities must
take on two tasks: first, they must regulate operators by establishing a system of licensing, which
will facilitate the enforcement of health and safety standards and the prevention of open dumping;
second, they must design a plan to conduct a system of scheduled emptying in which every
containment facility is emptied at least every three years (with more frequent emptying for public
accommodations, community/public toilets, and the like). This scheduled emptying will be
contingent on having completed a detailed survey of individual containment facilities (as referred to
in Section 2.1), and so may not be operationalized immediately; nevertheless, ULBs shall develop
plans to do so.
ULBs must take the following steps (some are also required in section 2.1, but at listed here for
clarity)
a) Determine how many households use on-site containment systems and ascertain how much
sludge they can contain in order to determine the amount of sludge that will be emptied
every year (presuming a three-year emptying cycle for individual households and more
accelerated cycles on an as-assessed basis for public and commercial facilities).
b) Determine how many septic tanks /pits are emptied annually and what volume of sludge is
disposed of at present by looking at actual on-ground practices.
c) Determine the average price per emptying (and accounting for how it may differ based on
volume and containment facility location) that operators are charging.
d) Use the above data to determine as to how many trucks would be needed if septic tanks
were emptied on a three-year basis and design a database for maintaining a register of
containment facilities that are emptied.
e) Create a registration system for private truck operators which permit them to legally empty
septic tanks within the ULB. However, these permits will require that they adhere to safety
and hygiene standards both in emptying and disposal (detailed below), establish certain
regulated tariffs for emptying septic tanks and latrines, and require the use of receipts to
track emptying and disposal. The permits and receipts required for this system are included
in annexures 3, 4, and 5. Pursuant to this, ULBs should establish a system for penalizing
trucks that operate without valid permits/licenses.
f) ULBs should mobilize enough vehicles, either through public or private means, to support a
three- year emptying system. This should be done in line with the growth in demand for
emptying services, so that trucks are not left underutilized.
As section “e,” mentioned previously, truck operators must take the following measures while
desludging:
• The septic tanks should not be fully emptied; small amount of sludge of around 1 to 2 inches
should be left in the septic tank to facilitate decomposing of incoming faecal waste.
• No fire or flame should be used near the septic tanks as there may be inflammable gases inside
septic tanks.
• Proper safety gear (including uniform, tools, and well-maintained vehicles) must be used by the
operator while desludging/emptying the septic tanks/Pits. The rules under the Prohibition of
Employment as Manual Scavengers and their Rehabilitation Act, 2013 provide for a
comprehensive list of safety gear that should be used while providing these services.
• Operators should clean their surroundings before leaving and after desludging; residents
should not find their homes or surroundings dirtier.
2.1.3 Treatment, Disposal, and Reuse
Treatment: ULBs must not dispose the faecal sludge /septage collected from septic tank/pits
without any treatment and ULBs must comply with CPCB and APPCB norms before disposal of
septage. ULBs should assess the load of septage and assess the requirement of capacity for
treatment plant. ULBs should first try and assess the possibility of setting up faecal sludge treatment
facilities at the solid waste treatment/disposal site or at sewage treatment plants within the city or
utilizing co-treatment, pending the advice and recommendations of the appropriate engineering
authorities. In particular, the state recommends co-locating purpose-built infrastructure, i.e.
building faecal sludge treatment plants next to either sewage treatment plants or solid waste
management plants, in order to gain advantage from synergies in operation and maintenance
(effluent from FSTP can go to STP, or output of FSTP can be co-composted with solid waste, etc.).
Reuse/disposal refers to the methods in which products are ultimately returned to the environment,
as either useful resources or reduced-risk materials. The treated septage can be used as a soil
enricher or as filling material at construction sites. ULB should carry out primary assessment for
availability of market and demand for reuse.
ULBs shall take the following steps in order to properly treat faecal sludge.
a) Operators shall be forbidden by regulation to dispose offsludge collected from the septic
tanks or pits into fields, rivers, nalas, forests, etc. These regulations shall be enforced and
violation shall be subject to advertised financial and/or legal penalties. These penalties
should come into force as soon as there is a sanitary location for dumping faecal sludge.
b) ULB should first assess the possibility of sludge treatment at existing STP in the city or STP
of nearby city through appropriate agreements with STP operators and receiving ULBs. A
list of cities that have STPs is given in Table 1. Some STPs are under construction in different
cities. Proper tests and assessment should be carried out by STP operators before receiving
Faecal sludge/septage.
c) If STP is not available in the city or nearby that can receive the sludge, then ULB should plan
for new faecal sludge treatment facility. Such a new faecal sludge treatment plant should be
designed to cater to expected volumes of septage generated in urban local body and if faecal
waste is expected from nearby rural areas or ULBs.
d) Input quality of the collected septage should be tested at the treatment facility for checking
presence of any metal or traces of industrial waste.
e) The faecal sludge treatment plant should be operational during working hours only and a
responsible person should be appointed in the facility to ensure that no industrial waste is
unloaded in these facilities.
f) Septage should be reused/disposed of only after it meets the parameters in Annexure 6.
Measures to be taken while planning for Faecal Sludge Treatment Plant
Identification of Faecal sludge and septage treatment site is crucial for effective implementation
of septage management plan. Following parameters to be taken into consideration before
finalization of treatment sites:
• Distance of treatment site: Distance from emptying to delivering and accessibility of the
treatment site are major issues. The transport of relatively small faecal sludge volumes on
congested roads over long distances in large urban areas is financially unfeasible. A site that is
too far away implies fewer trips per day, less revenue and more fuel costs to private operators.
• Reliability of electricity: It is also important to assess the availability and reliability of electricity
if treatment technology has mechanical operated parts; as in case of fluctuations it will
increase treatment time and will affect optimal utilization of treatment capacity.
• Neighbourhood: A treatment site may generate objectionable odours. For this reason, it should
be located at an appropriate distance from the residential areas and communities should be
consulted during the process of designating land for a treatment plant.
• Land availability: Projects are often delayed because of non-availability or high price of land.
ULBs should identify the land bank for treatment facility. ULBs should also explore the
possibility of developing faecal sludege and septage treatment facilities near solid waste
dumping sites or already existing sewage treatment plants in order to streamline disposal
processes: effluent from FSTPs may be treated at an STP, and the treated sludge may be cocomposted with solid waste
• Geological Parameters: Assessment of existing geological conditions on site including
groundwater table, type of soil, flooding risk is always recommended to ensure that the
structure can be safely constructed and sludge will not enter the environment through either
porous soil or frequent floods.
2.1.4 Awareness generation and capacity building activities
Awareness generation activities need to be taken up for successful implementation of faecal
sludge management plan. Wherever possible, these activities should be led by City Sanitation Task
Forces, or a sub- committee including members of CSTFs and other interested parties. Where CSTFs
do not exist, ULBs should take efforts to establish CSTFs with particular sub-committees on FSM.
These awareness-building activities are crucial, as ULBs do not have the coercive capacity to force
citizens to comply with FSM regulations; they must be accepted by citizens. Associated training and
capacity building of municipal staff as well as private sector contractors also needs to be taken up.
a) Awareness generation for residents: Members of Resident Welfare Associations,
community organizers, self-help groups and the general public should be sensitized
periodically regarding the need for a safe faecal sludge management system including a 3-
year cycle. The health hazards associated with improper collection and treatment of waste,
and the ill-effects of sewage discharge into fresh water/storm water drains should be
explained to the residents. Sample material for awareness generation is in Annexure 5.
Awareness generation activities should be carried out at the beginning of introducing a
scheduled service in all wards and then repeated periodically over the three-year cycle.
b) Capacity building for municipal staff: Municipal Commissioners, Engineers, Health
Officers, Sanitary Inspectors, and Sanitary Workers should be well trained in safe septage
management and its best practices. This involves regular training sessions on safe
collection, treatment and disposal. Information regarding standard septic tank design, the
need for periodic inspection and desludging of septage, design of a treatment facility,
tender details for engaging licensed transporters, etc. should be disseminated widely to
achieve a safe faecal sludge management system. Training should also be provided on
safety standards.
c) Capacity building for septage transporters/private vendors: Local Bodies should ensure all
safety norms are clearly explained to the septage transporters. Private Operators and
Transporters should be well trained in safe collection and transportation of sewage
including vehicle design, process of desludging, safety gears and safe disposal at the nearest
treatment facility.
d) Gender Inclusivity: It is crucial that municipalities look at faecal sludge management
through a lens considering gender, particularly concerning the empowerment of women and
girls. Women should be equitably involved in the planning of feacal sludge management
activities or the formation of local regulations, and any CSTF or sub-committee that
discusses faecal sludge management should have a membership consisting of at least onethird women, at minimum.
2.1.5 Record-keeping, Reporting, Monitoring and Feedback Systems (MIS)
Record keeping and manifest forms should be an integral part of a comprehensive septage
management program. Recordkeeping requirements should be codified into the law governing the
program. A sample manifest form is detailed out in Annexure 5.
a) The completed document or documents with signatures of the household/property, suction
truck operator, and treatment plant operator should be submitted to the local government
for their records. These documents would validate that the sludge collected from households
is disposed of at proper treatment facilities.
b) A database system such as the one discussed in access and collection will need to be
developed and maintained.
c) Where possible, GIS should be used to be plan the route of suction emptier trucks and track
emptying trucks for regular record keeping.
d) Consumer grievance redressal system for faecal sludge management should also be set up as
a part of urban local body record keeping systems and helpline numbers to be shared with
residents as a part of monitoring and record keeping systems for faecal sludge management.
2.1.6 Private Sector Participation for Septage Management Activities
For effective operationalize of scheduled septic tank emptying service and treatment facilities, ULBs
may also explore the option for private sector participation. Following points to be taken into
consideration by ULB:
a) Explore private sector participation for various activities like procurement, operations and
maintenance of the suction emptier trucks, construction and operations of septage treatment
facility and possible re-users of treated septage within the city as well as in nearby cities.
b) Develop performance based contracts such that payment is linked to the performance of
private sector for providing the services.
3. Financial Resources and Considerations in Faecal Sludge and Septage
Management
While Faecal Sludge and Septage Management treatment options are significantly most cost
effective than conventional sewerage options, they still require capital costs that some
municipalities cannot bear. Most of the initial source of funding across the sanitation value chain
will have to be provided by the joint effort of the central and state government through allied
programme funding like Smart City, AMRUT etc.
Private Funding Options
1. Desludging fee paid by user to the desludging service provider
2. Fine for faulty containment system construction and illegal disposal of faecal sludge.
3. Sale of end products (For Eg. Dried faecal sludge, water).
4. Property tax designated for FSM.
State and Municipal Funding Options
a) As per the Andhra Pradesh Municipal Corporation Act, 1955 – conservancy tax can be
levied on all the properties by the Corporation where city undertakes the collection,
removal and disposal of excrementitiously and polluted matter from privies, urinals and
cesspools.
b) Periodic revisions for the taxes/ charges to be effected based on revisions in costs involved.
c) To the extent possible, revenues should be generated from sale of treated septage for
agriculture or other purposes.
Additional Funding Options
a) ULB may utilize the funds from 14th Finance Commission to implement the various
components related to septage management plan. Creation of database for toilets and septic
tanks, procurement of suction emptier trucks and construction of septage treatment facilities
are the permissible components to utilize the 14th FC funds. The funds would also be provided
as preparatory activity like preparing detailed project report and prefeasibility report for
septage management.
b) IEC & Capacity building funds: IEC funds under SBM can be utilized for various awareness
generating activities. This applies to ULBs using funds to implementing septage management
plan, and can include funding capacity building activities for ULB staff, septage transporters,
treatment plant operators, and ULB residents.
c) Convergence with existing schemes/activity: ULBs can ask for funds under the existing state
and national schemes such as Smart City Mission AMRUT
d) Corporate Social Responsibility: ULBs can also raise funding through Corporate Social
Responsibility.
4. Technology Options for Septage Management
Treatment options for faecal sludge /septage are based on four treatment objectives. These four
mechanism enable sludge to be handled, disposed of, and/or re-used safely.
1. Solid liquid separation: Solid-liquid separation is the first step for successful treatment
of feacal sludge, as refuse must be brought to some sort of uniform consistency.
2. Dewatering: Before treatment, faecal sludge is over 80-90% water by volume; de-watering
is necessary to reduce volume/weight and destroy the habitat that allows dangerous
pathogens to grow.
3. Stabilization: Stabilization refers to several biological and chemical processes
through which ongoing biological-chemical reactions run their course and nutrients
are consumed by bacteria.
4. Reuse applications: Once the previous three steps have been accomplished, sludge can be
re-used for productive purposes or sent on for further treatment (such as co-composting
with solid waste) depending on its chemical/biological profile.
Septage containment and treatment technology options are included according to Swachh
Bharat Mission Guidelines in the following table. In any given context, the technology choice for
conveyance system generally depends on the following factors:
• Type and quantity of products to be transported
• Distance from containment facilities
• Accessibility
• Topography
• Soil and groundwater characteristics
• Financial resources
• Availability of a service provider
• Management considerations
Technologies for Faecal Sludge management based on the above objectives can be adopted as
mentioned in Table 2.
Urban Local Bodies can choose from a range of treatment options available in the market,
depending upon their needs and available finances.
Table 2 – Technical Options Across the Faecal Sludge Value Chain
Containment Transport
Treatment
Solid/Liqui Reuse
d Dewatering Further Treatment
Septic Tank
(preferred)
Small
Vacuum
Truck (1,500

3,000 litres)
Imhoff
Tanks
Mechanical Co-composting Soil
conditioner
Twin Pit System
Large
vacuum
truck (3,000
Settling
/Thickeni
ng Tanks
Unplante
d drying
beds
Deep row
entrenchment Irrigation
Aerobic biodigester
Thermal
Drying
Sludge incineration
/pyrolysis
Building
Material
Anaerobic biodigester Solar Drying Anaerobic
digestion
Biofuel
Planted
Drying beds
Black soldier flies
/vermicomposting Proteins
Lime/Ammo
nia
Co-treatment with
wastewater up to
3% FS of current
STP load
*Adopted from IWA publication Faecal Sludge Management Systems Approach for Implementation and Operation, IWA Publications, 2014.
Annexure 1: Septic Tank Specifications, Guidelines, and Designs
Depending on the geography, soil condition, water seepage capacity of the soil the design can
be prepared and approved by the Local Bodies. Proper septic tank design considers the
following factors:
• Sized properly with appropriate sludge detention time, volume and hydraulic
• retention time
• Proper inlet and outlet structures
• At least one baffle separating the tank into multiplecompartments
• Water tight
• Access port for each compartment that allows for inspection andpumping
Table1: recommended Sizes of Septic Tanks as per Number of Users
Number of Users Length (M) Breadth (M) Liquid Depth for a Cleaning Interval
of 3 Years (M)
5 1.50 0.75 1.05
10 2.00 0.90 1.40
15 2.00 0.90 2.00
20 2.30 1.10 1.80
50 5.00 2.00 1.24
100 7.50 2.65 1.24
150 10.00 3.00 1.24
200 12.00 3.30 1.24
300 15.00 4.00 1.24
(Note; The CPHEEO Manual and NBC code IS 2470 Part I 1985 may be referred for exact
calculations)
Table 2: Existing guide lines for design and construction of septic tanks
Parameters Existing Guidelines Source Of
Guideline
General
Observatio
ns
Location Septic tanks are recommended only for individual homes,
small communities and institutions whose contributory
population size doesn’t exceed 300
A sub soil dispersion system shall not be closer than 18 meters
from any source of drinking water, such as well, to mitigate the
possibility of bacterial pollution of water supply
Septic tank should be located at a place open to sky, as far away
as possible from the exterior of the wall of building and should
not be located in swampy areas or areas prone to flooding.
Septic tanks should have a minimum width of 750 mm, depth of 1
meter below water level and a minimum water capacity of 1 cubic
meter. The length of the tank shall be 2 to 4 times the width.
CPHEEO
Manual
NBC, Part 3:
Developme
nt Control
Rules and
General
Building
Requirement
s
IS 2470,
Part1
NBC, Part 3:
Developme
nt Control
Rules
While all existing
guidelines state that
the location of septic
tank should be given
due consideration, in
reality, the location of
the septic tanks are
practically based on
the land availability
within the household
vicinity
Local masons
unaware of the
existing
Design
and
Constructi
on
The minimum nominal diameter of the pipe shall be 100 mm.
Further at junctions of pipes in manholes, direction of flow from
a branch connection shall not make an angle exceeding 45
degrees with the direction of flow in main pipe
and General design/construction
Building guidelines for
Requirements construction of
septic
; tanks. The criterion
Every septic tank shall be provided with a ventilation pipe of at least 50 IS 2470, Part
governing the design
mm diameter -1 and construction
The liquid depth should be 2-3 m and the length to depth ratio
should be 2-3 to 1. The liquid depth of the septic tank should be
calculated depending on the cleaning interval of the septic tank
(For detail length, breadth and liquid depth for various number
of users please refer the Manual); A provision of 300 mm should
be made for free board
When served for a population above 100, the septic tank may be
divided into independent parallel chambers for operation and
maintenance
CPHEEO;
IS 2470,
Part1
broadly is the land
availability and the
funds available
with the house
owner / property
builders
Baffles are provided at inlet and outlet and should dip 25 to 30 cm
into and project 15 cm above the liquid. The invert of the outlet
pipe should be
provided at 5 to 7 cm
below the invert level of inlet pipe.
The height of the ventilation pipe should extend at least 2 m
above the height of the highest building within 20 meters
radius
Improved Septic Tank” - the walls of the conventional septic tank
can be replaced with baffle walls to have a multi chambered
baffled septic tank. The paper states “This movement of
wastewater inside the tank helps in creating the turbulent flow
which causes enhanced mixing of the raw sewage with already
existing activated sludge and accelerates the decomposition of the
solids because of intensive contact between
the activated sludge and fresh influent”.
CSE Policy
Paper on
septage
manageme
nt in India
Design for improved septic tank- three chamber with anaerobic baffled
reactor
Design for improved septic tank- three chamber with anaerobic baffled
reactor
Anaerobic decentralized waste water treatment systems (DEWATs
P a g e 20
Annexure 2: Guidelines for Conversion of Insanitary Latrines into
Sanitary Toilets
Table: Existing guide lines for leach pits
Parameters Existing Guidelines Source
Size(five
members)
Dia – 1000 mm preferred but 750 mm also permitted where space is a constraint
Depth – 1300 mm
CPHEEO
Emptying Single pit – 6 years, Twin pit – 3 years each CPHEEO
Shape Circular preferred; but rectangular, oval and square also allowed where space is
a constraint
CPHEEO
Location Pits should be placed symmetrically at the back side of the pan. Can be
located within premises, under foot pat/road/narrow lane
The distance between foundation and pit should be between 0.2 to 1.3 m
A minimum distance of 3 to 10 m from water sources such as tube wells and 3 to
10 m from water mains
Water pipe should not cut across the pit
CPHEEO
Design and
construction
The pits should be lined to avoid collapsing. Bricks joined in 1:6 mortar
commonly used for lining. Stones or laterite bricks of cement concrete rings
could also be used.
Lining brick work 115 mm thick (half brick) with honey combing up to the invert
level of incoming pipe or drain.
Size of holes 50 mm wide up to the height of brick course Pit bottom should be
left in natural condition
RCC slab is used for pit cover
Toilet pan is connected to the pit through a 75 mm brick channel of U shape
CPHEEO
Annexure 3: Form for Application for the License the Collection,
Transportation and Disposal of Septage in Andhra Pradesh
1. Name of the applicant: Shri/Ms
2. Nationality: Indian Other
3. Address: Regd. Office: Head office:
4. Telephone No.: (O) Mobile No. Email ID
5. Registration No. of Vehicle :
6. Pollution certificate of the vehicle valid up to:
7. Insurance of the vehicle valid up to:
8. Fitness of the vehicle valid up to:
9. Vehicle, whether fitted with GPS:
10 Details of the vehicles indicating model, type, capacity, leak proof, odour and
spill proof having propervacuum/ suction and discharging arrangement
(Document proof of any may be enclosed).
11 Processing fee for license Rs. 1000/- ( Non-refundable)
D.D. No. Date Bank
I/We certify that information given by me/us in column 1 to 11 are true to the best of my
knowledge and belief. I also certify that I have read and understood the attached terms
and conditions 1 to 13 and agree to abide by them. I agree that if any information given by
me is found wrong the application for license will be liable for cancellation at any time.
Signature(s) of applicant(s)
Paste Self-Attested
Recent Passport Size
Photograph
No. of document attached: Date:
Annexure 4: License for Collection and Transportation of Septage
In accordance with all the terms and conditions of the By-laws/ Regulations, Municipal
Corporation Act rules, the special license conditions accompanying this license and
applicable rules and laws of Government of Andhra Pradesh, the permission is hereby
granted to:
NAME OF
LICENSEE……………………………………………………………………..
ADDRESS…………………………………………………………………………………

For the disposal of septage from septic tanks in TOWN HERE
This license is based on information provided in the Septage Collection and
Transportation License Application. This license is effective for a period of five years
from date of issue, set forth below.
EFFECTIVE DATE EXPIRATION DATE
The license may be suspended or revoked for Condition of Non Compliance and
is not transferable. The original license shall be kept on file in the Licensee’s office. A
copy of this license shall be carried in every registered vehicle used by the Licensee.
Annexure 5: Collection and Transport Records
Sample Form to be filled by Operator/Transporter of Feacal Sludge
i. Identification of Waste:
a) Volume:
b) C: Septic Tank Others (Please Specify):
c) Source:
Others
Residential Commercial Restaurant Portable Toilet
ii. Details of Waste Generator
a) Name
b) Phone Number
c) Address
d) Pin
The undersigned being duly authorized does hereby certify to the accuracy of the source
and type of wastewater collected and transported.
Date: Signature: Proposed Date for Next Desludging (Year):
iii. Details of Transporter / Operator
a) Company Name:
b) Permit #
c) Vehicle License #
d) Pump out date
The above described feacal sludge was picked up and hauled by me to the disposal facility name
below and was discharged. I certify that the foregoing is true and correct:
e) Signature of authorized agent and title:
iv. Acceptance by Municipality’s authorized FSTP/STP
The above transporter delivered the described feacal sludge to this disposal facility and it was
accepted.
Disposal date: Amount Collected from Transporter:
Signature of authorized signatory and title:
NOTE: SUBJECT TO THE TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF MUNICIPALITY
Annexure 6: Safe Reuse and Disposal of Treated Septage2
Table 1: Compost Quality as per MSW Rules, 2000
Parameter Concentration not to
exceed (mg/kg dry basis,
except for
pH and carbon to nitrogen
Arsenic 10
Cadmium 5
Chromium 50
Copper 300
Lead 100
Mercury 0.15
Nickel 50
Zinc 1000
C/N ratio 20 – 40
pH 5.5 – 8.5
For dewatered septage/sludge can be used as fertilizer in agriculture application, it
should satisfy the following criteria of Class A Bio-solids of US EPA: A faecal coliform
density of less than 1000 MPN/g total dry solids, Salmonella sp. density of less than 3
MPN per 4 g of total dry solids. WHO (2006) suggests Helminth egg concentration of 1/g total solids and E coli of 1000/g total solids in treated septage for use in agriculture
MSW Rules (2000) recommended the quality for compost as referred to Table below.
In the absence of any standards, it is recommended that these be adopted until such
time standards are notified by the Central Pollution Control Board.
Properly treated sludge can be reused to reclaim parched land by application as soil
conditioner, and/or as a fertilizer. Deteriorated land areas, which cannot support the
plant vegetation due to lack of nutrients, soil organic matter, low pH and low water
holding capacity, can be reclaimed and improved by the application of treated septage.
Septage sludge, as a result of lime stabilization has pH buffering capacity that is
beneficial for the reclamation of acidic soils. Treated septage contains nutrients in
considerable amounts, which supports the growth of a number of plants.
Drip irrigation is the preferred irrigation method for settled septage effluent when
irrigation is feasible. Crops which could be safely grown are corn, fodder, cotton, trees
including fruit trees, eucalyptus and poplar.
Aquaculture can be practiced for settled septage effluent when freshwater is
available to achieve dilution to ensure dissolved oxygen is above 4 mg / l. Fish species of
tilapia and carp are preferred since they tolerate low dissolved oxygen. Both drip
irrigation and aquaculture need land and are feasible at city outskirts.
2 Source: Advisory note: Septage Management in Urban India, Ministry of Urban Development,
Government of India. (2013) and Guidelines for septage management in Maharashtra. (2016)